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These " demons " left during the night to nourish blood of their victim. In fact these men called wolves-garous were victims d’une hereditary disease called porphyrie, a disease of the metabolism which can nowadays be treated. Porphyrins are reddish pigments which are in the core of l’hémoglobine. The patient suffers d’un excess from these reddish pigments in the urines, making believe qu’il urinated of blood, the blood of his victims. It is as probable as certain " wolves-garous " suffered from lycanthropie, disease schizophrenic which makes believe in the patient qu’il is a wolf. This disease exists still nowadays, but it is rare. Pline s’était already interested in the case of wolves-garous and, already at that time, it affirmed qu’ils did not n’existaient. Pline proves to us that the stories of wolves-garous existed already with l’époque of Jesus Christ. These stories d’hommes which have the capacity to be transformed into animal exist everywhere in the world. For example, in Africa there were hyenas-garous, in Japan of the foxes-garous, in South America of the jaguars-garous, Norway the bears-garous and in Europe we inherited the wolves-garous. woman or she-wolf... the legend of the loba. It is named also Huesera (the Woman with OS) Trapera (the Pick-up), it symbolizes for us l’énergie "wild". The loba prototype of the wild woman, pertaining to the seignery of the wolves, symbolizes the resourcing and the recognition has as a task to collect bones by surveying the mountains and the beds of rivers drained, c’est why it is told that if you wander in the desert with laying down sun, you have chance, because the LOBA can take to you in sympathy and show something... something which belongs to l’ÂME.
Werewolf An article of Wikipédia, the free encyclopaedia. To go to: Navigation, To seek For the homonymous articles?, to see Wolf (homonymy). The Werewolf, illustration of Lucas Cranach the Old one about 1512The werewolf or lycanthrope is a character of legend, vagrant and malfaisant, who passed to have the capacity to transform themselves into wolf. Synopsis [masquer] 1 Terminology 2 the legend 2.1 Characteristics and attributes 2.2 The fight counters the werewolf 3 the myth 3.1 The tradition greco-Roman 3.2 The Germanic tradition 4 the wolf garou of the Middle Ages 5 the contemporary wolf garou 6 Etiology 6.1 Voyages of the heart 6.2 A disorder of the imaginary one 6.3 A psychiatric disease 7 Catalogue of films 8 Notes 9 Bibliography 10 See too Terminology [to modify] The term "garou" comes from francic the werwolf which means "man-wolf already" ("wer" represents the same root as Latin "to vir", the man). Originally, Wolf wanted to also say "robber"[1]. The Latin term are equivalent is versipelles.[2] The term "lycanthrope" comes him from the Greek lycos ("wolf") and anthropos ("man"). It is thus a human being which believes itself transformed into wolf. The thérianthropie term tends today to replace. According to Ernest Jones[3] the Russian name is volkodlak, of volk=loup and dlak=poil, whereas the Slavic term vukodlak, which also designates the werewolf, is used in Bulgaria and Serbia to indicate the vampire. In the same way in Czech: vilkodlak and in Greek: vrykolakas is used to indicate the vampire, which means that there is a close relationship between the werewolf and the vampire. [to modify] the legend The three essential elements of the belief in the werewolf are the ideas of animal metamorphosis, cannibalism and night voyage[3]. [to modify] Characteristic and attributes According to the legend, at the time of the nights of Full moon,the human werewolf, transforms themselves into an enormous wolf with highly developed directions and acquires the characters allotted to this animal: muscular power, agility, trick and ferocity. It drives out and attacks without mercy its victims to devour them, not controlling its actions more, and being able to kill out of many victims in only one night. People started to drive out the wolves, protecting themselves some withholy water and killing them with a silver ball or money piles. The man reached of lycanthropie must generally remove his clothing before taking the shape of the werewolf. This belief appears already in Satyricon de Pétrone (Ier century). In the same way, in the "Lay one of Bisclavret" of Marie de France (XIIe S.), a knight must strip himself entirely before metamorphosing himself and dissimulates his clothing under a hollow stone because, if it did not find them, it would be condemned to wander indefinitely in the shape of a wolf. According to the tradition, the wolf-garous suffer from the same repulsion as the vampires for the things crowned and, of the same, were regarded as creatures of the Devil. Their condition can hereditary or be acquired. It can occur by a curse pronounced by a wizard or a priest, or while clinking glasses (without the knowledge) with a werewolf who pronounces then a formula of transmission (Lithuanian belief). The transmission by bite is an invention of the American cinema, by contamination of the myth of the Vampire. In the same way, according to the legend, human the wolf-garous could preserve some characteristics, a such modification of their voice and their eyes, eyebrows meeting above the nose, of the slightly reddish nails, the major one and the of the same index length (like a leg of wolf), the ears established a little low and behind of the head, and a general way a little more hairs on the hands, the feet and in the back. The werewolf can thus be a metamorphosed alive man, but it can also be a body which leaves the tomb in the shape of a wolf, variety known under the name of phantom werewolf. One believed by there that the metamorphosed body was that of a damnée heart which did not find the rest in its tomb[3]. The legend of the werewolf also evokes that of the night voyage. Indeed, the belief that a given person could be in two places at the same time is attested in the multiple accounts where the wounds of the wolf were found on the human body which remained with the hearth[3]. From the XVEcentury, the legends, in Scandinavia, in Western Russia and Central Europe, make state of the existence of magic philtres which can help human the wolf-garous to find all their human aspect. [to modify] the fight counters the werewolf Lycanthrope changing only with full moon, it is enough to lock up it during this period in a cage or a cell firmly closed and padlocked. Once the transformation carried out, the lycanthrope sees his multiplied by ten forces, the only effective weapon to kill it is a gun or better a rifle with money balls, if possible bénites. Exorcism remains another way of driving out the démoniaque spirit which took possession of the body of unhappy which cursed and to thus perhaps save its life. To undoubtedly survive, it should be touched into full c?ur and the ball must remain there. If you can reach that point with a lance or a pile (its c?ur should be transpierced), it is necessary that the blade entirely silver and is blessed in the name of the saint of the hunters. To keep it without danger, one needs a silver cage (blessed it also). The blessed money causes burns to him which it hates and which it does not support; it will not touch the bars of its cage well a long time, if it resists to him, it becomes more furious, which gives him even more force. [to modify] the myth The Werewolf, stamps German of 1722The myth of the werewolf is very old and commun run with many European people. From the point of view of mythology, the werewolf was indissociable a long time of the vampire, with which it shares many common points, however, the myth of the werewolf is much older than that of the vampire. One finds the myth of the man transforming himself into wild animal in other cultures. In the Pantheon ofold Egypt, many gods were represented in the form of an hybrid, half animal man and half. In an old woman and heroic saga Tartar, Bürûh Kahn which reigned on six hundred wolves, passed a part of its time under the appearance of a resplendent wolf like gold[3]. In Africa, one notes the presence ofthe man-leopard (Congo),the man-jackal andthe man-hyena (Abyssinie). One also announces the presence ofthe man-tiger in Asia andthe man-shark in Oceania. These traditions perhaps inspired the two versions of film "the cat-like one" (1942 and 1982), where a young woman metamorphoses herself in panther. This topic is very present besides in the literature and the cinema of the fantastic. In "the island of Doctor Moreau" of H.G. Wells (1896), an insane scientist tries to transform the men into animals, but it manages to create only monsters, semi-men, semi-animals. In film "the black fly" of Kurt Neumann (1958), it is a biologist who changes accidentally into a hybrid being, semi-man, light flyweight. Lastly, in the film "Sssnake" of Bernard Kowalski (1973), another insane scientist manages to transform a young man into cobra, but this one is immediately made devour by a mongoose... the tradition greco-Roman [to modify] With the O Cfront century. J.-C., Hérodote[4] speaks about a race of men living the regions of the edges of the Black Sea and able as skilful magicians to metamorphose itself at will in wolves, then to take again their human appearance. As of this time there was a belief in the fact that anthropophagous human beings, by the practice of the magic, took the appearance of a wolf to satisfy their monstrous appetites more easily. Greek mythology tells that Latona, the mother ofApollo, was protected from the anger ofHéra while being transformed into she-wolf. Ovide (-43 - 17), also reports that Lycaon, king d'Arcadie and his fifty sons which famous for their were impiété, were used among many dishes for Zeus which had come to visit them under the appearance of a poor wretch, a dish containing human flesh which will avèra the being that of youngest wire. Thus it could uncover God of the Gods. But this last, made indignant, pushed back with far the table from the feast, struck down all wire of the king, except Nyctimos, which went up on the throne and changed Lycaon into wolf: Its clothing changes into hairs, its arms in legs become a wolf it still preserves vestiges of its old form. It always has the same gray hair, the same savage air, the same burning eyes; it is always the image of ferocity. Ovide, the Metamorphoses (I, 209) Virgile (-70 -19) also speaks about it in its eighth eclogue, where it makes say to Alphésibée: "I saw Moeris being made wolf and being inserted in wood". Pline the Old one (23 - 79) speaks about a Greek writer, Évanthes, quoting itself the books of Arcadiens, in which an individual of a certain family transformed himself into wolf after having suspended his clothing with a oak and having crossed a pond with the stroke. It regained its human shape at the end of nine years and found even its clothing. It also speaks about certain Déménète de Parrhasie which was metamorphosed in wolf after having tasted entrails of a child, immolé in the sacrifice of human victims that Arcadiens still made in this time with Jupiter Lycéen[5]. To Iercentury, Arétée de Cappadoce explains why certain men who feel transformed into wolf are worked by the appetites and the pangs of this wild animal, are thrown on the herds and the men to devour them, leave during the night preferably, haunt the cemeteries and the monuments, howling with death, with a perpetual deterioration, the inserted eyes and hagards, not seeing that obscurely as if it were surrounded of darkness, the ravaged legs by the scratches and the bites of dogs. [to modify] the Germanic tradition Many other legends in Scandinavia, Western Russia and Central Europe, refer to the wolves-garous. The Scandinavian garous by are struck same ostracism only elsewhere and, without being ordinary, the garou is more or less accepted in the company. The Scandinavian equivalent of the wolf garou is the vargúlfr[6] [7]. In Saga d' Egill wire of Grímr the bald person, the Úlfr grandfather was called Kveld-Úlfr, the wolf of the evening, because each evening it became savage and wanted to sleep. Egill inherited this property. In Völsunga saga Sigmundr and Sinfjötli discover two deadened men. Skins of wolves were suspended above them in the house; every ten days, it was possible for them to leave these skins. Sigmundr and Sinfjötli passed the skins of wolves to them and then, they could not at all leave there, though in truth, they had preserved same nature as before: they howled like wolves, each one of them knowing the significance of this howl. The women can also transform themselves into she-wolf: inpoetic Edda (Hárbardhsljódh), vargynjur is the woman-she-wolf that Thórr molesté[7]. The wolf and the bear are the reasons for the warrior-deer, them to berserkir (which wears a shirt of bear) or úlfhedhnar (which carries a fur-lined coat of wolf), which in the engagements entered a warlike fury. This fury was a crowned frenzy[8], these warriors of the combatants of elite[7]. [to modify] the wolf garou the Middle Ages To the XIIEcentury, Guillaume of Palermo speaks about Leu-Garou. Many wizards at the time had taken the practice to run in the fields, the nights of full moon, provided with skins of wolf, in order to frighten the populations. Marie de France composes lay (Bisclavret) in whom a knight must strip herself entirely before changing into wolf and dissimulates her clothing under a hollow stone, because it could not find its human form if they were concealed to him. End of the Middle Ages and during the Rebirth, in a little more than one hundred years, one recorded, in France, nearly 30 000 lawsuits of wolf-garous. The rural populations strongly believed in the existence of these "men wolves" who devastated the campaigns and tackled the animals as with the being human. In Europe, of XVe to the XVIIIEcentury, nearly 100 000 people were recognized like werewolf and were condemned to be burned sharp. According to Collin de Plancy, tens of thousands of others perished, without another form of lawsuit, when a villager was suspected of being a werewolf, it were caught and skinned sharp, because the legend wanted that the hairs hid under the skin. [to modify] the contemporary wolf garou At the time of the XXEcentury, several businesses were related to the myth of the werewolf: the business of the "animal of Sarlat", in Sarlat in the Dordogne, ever elucidated; the business of the "animal of Senonges" in the Vosges which in 1994 égorgea more than 80 animals; the business of the "animal of Were worth", in Switzerland, ever elucidated; the business of the "animal of Noth", in Switzerland, ever elucidated; Very recently, the newspaper international Mail of November 6, 2003 - n° 679, brings back these strange testimonys held in front of the criminal court of Lausanne (Swiss) where a man is continued to have massacred his wife with blows of knife: "I saw his canines pushing. They released a strange odor. Like that of a werewolf". The defendant preserved "a contact with reality", indicated on his side the psychiatric expert. [to modify] Etiology The Latin doctors knew a disease which they named insania lupina (madness louvière or rage lupine). [to modify] voyages of the heart According to Claude Lecouteux[9] the belief in the wolves-garous is related to that of the voyages of the heart, whose it represents only one particular case. In Scandinavian mythology, hamr, "the skin", is one of the forms which "the heart can take", the man who can have several of them. It is précisemment the internal format which marries the body envelope closely. The manifestation of the hamr is accompanied by an increase in force, can take the aspect of an animal, and be played of the distances and obstacles[10]. The change in form, "while the individual falls in lethargy", is "a point which points out fright exactly during which the spirit of the Shaman visits the other world and enters in communication with the spirits that it questions"[11]. According to Governed Boyer, Hugr, in the Scandinavian tradition, is a universal active ingredient which can sometimes be collected by malevolent people to produce harmful effects. Thus in Saga de Thórdr hredha, a man sees in dream eighteen wolves which are in fact the "hugr of wolves" of its enemies, makes the "bad hugr of it". [to modify] a disorder of the imaginary one Johann Weyer, doctor of the Netherlands (1515-1588), explains the lycanthropie like an imaginary and morbid phenomenon[12]. It thus describes the patients who are reached by it: they are pale, have the inserted eyes and the extremely dry language. It is the same for Jean de Nynauld who publish in 1615 Of the lycanthropie, transformation and extase of the wizards: "mélancholie or madness louvière because of those which estoient some reached thinks of being transformed into wolf or dog." Collin de Plancy, in its infernal Dictionary, published in 1818, defines the lycanthropie as one "disease which, in the centuries when one saw everywhere only demons, sorceries and evil spells, disturbed the imagination of the weak brains, so much so that they were believed metamorphosed in wolves-garous, and acted consequently. The melancholic persons more than the others were laid out with becoming lycanthropes, i.e. men wolves.". [to modify] a psychiatric disease The belief that its own body can be transformed into wolf is a zoopathy, namely a symptom of a psychiatric disease in progress. The structure of this is delirious is of paraphrenic type.
ARIBAUD-FARRERE. The Animal of Gévaudan identified. Béziers AAE, 1962 AYLESWORTH Thomas. The story of Werewolves. éd. Mc Graw-Hill, 1978 BLACKWOOD A. Running Wolf. 1921 TO STOP A. The Compleat Werwolf. 1942 BUFFIERE Felix. The Animal of Gévaudan: A enigma of the history. éd. Toulouse, 1999 BURTON R.F. Man-eaters. éd. Payot, 1932 BUXTON R. Wolfs and Werewolves in Greek Thought. éd. Bremmer, 1987 BYRON Lord. Gift Juan. 1824 CAMPBELL G. The white She-wolf of Kostopchin. 1889 CAMUS Domenica. Park in Garou ! Lycanthropie in the strategies. socio-economic. éd. of Author, 1999 CASA D. Lune of blood. 1969 CHEVALLEY Abel. The Animal of Gévaudan. éd. Gallimard, 1936 COHEN Daniel. Werewolves. éd. Cobblehill Books, 1996 COLLECTIVE. Métamorfosis, Misterios of lo Desconocido. éd. del Prado, 1989 COLLECTIVE. Mysteries Transformations of the Unknow. éd. Time-Life Books, 1989 COLLIN of PLANCY J infernal Dictionnaire. éd. Elder Mongie, 1825 CONDE Nicholas. Werewolf. éd. Presses of the City, 1989 COPPER Basil. The Werewolf: in Legend, fact, and art. éd. Hauls, 1977 COSTER of CH. Weerwolf. 1867 DEFORGES Régine. The child of the wolves. éd. The Round Table, 1981 DELPERRIE of BAYAC Jacques. Blood in the Mountain: Truths and false mysteries of the Animal of Gévaudan. éd. Beech, 1970 DUBOIS RF Life and died of the Animal of Gévaudan. éd. OGAM, 1988 DUCLOS Denis. The complex of the werewolf. éd the Discovery, 1994 DUMAS Alexandre. The Leader of Wolves. éd. Marabout, 1986 DUPUY-MAZEL. The Miracle of the Wolves. éd. Albin Michel, 1924 DURAND-TULLOU A. Of the dog to the werewolf in the fantastic one of Claude Seignolle. éd. Maisonneuve, 1961 EISLER Robert. Man into Wolf. Philosophical Library, 1952 ENDORE G. The wolf-garous of Paris. 1933 ERCKMANN-CHATRIAN. Hugues the wolf. éd. Casterman, 1980, 1998 FABRE (Abbot). The Animal of Gévaudan. éd. H. Bourbonnelle, 1901 FABRE François. The Animal of Gévaudan. éd. Of Borated, 2000 FOIX Vincent. Witch and Wolves-Garous in the Moors. éd. Ultreïa, 1988 GAGNIERE S. The Animal of Gévaudan was well a wolf. éd. of author, 1945 Maurice BOY. Stories Curious about wolves-garous. éd. Beech, 1979 GOENS Jean. Wolves-Garous, Vampires and other Monsters. éd. CNRS, 1993 GREGORY F The White Wolf. 1941 GUBERNATIS (of) Angelo. Zoological Mythology in the animal legends. éd. Durand and Pédone-Lauriel, 1874 (reprint, 1978) HAGE Marie-Pierre. The oak, the she-wolf and Julie. éd. Art & T, 2007 HAMEL Franck. Human Animals. éd. Albin Michel, 1972 TO GRIP Tared. Wolfwalker. éd. Ballantine Books, 1990 HENNEBERG Nathalie. Money she-wolf in busy abyss. 1969 HOUSMAN Clemence. White fur. 1896 HUSTON Shaun. Erebe or the blacks patûrages. éd. Gore, 1984 IVANCIK Askold. Warrior-dogs. Wolves-garous and invasions Scythians in Minor Asia. éd. University Presses of France, 1993 JOISTEN Charles fantastic beings in the folklore of Ariège. éd. Loubatières, 2000 KING Stephen. The year of the werewolf. éd. Albin Michel, 1986 KIPLING Rudyard. The mark of the animal. 1889 KITZBERG A. Loup-garous-garous. 1910 LECOUTEUX Claude. Fairies, witch and wolves-garous in the Middle Ages. éd. Imago, 1993 LOUIS Michel the Animal of Gévaudan, the innocence of the wolves éd. Perrin, 2001 LOWERY Bruce. The werewolf éd. Denoël, 1969 MARRYAT F. The white wolf of the solid mass of the hartz. 1839 MAUPASSANT G (of). The Wolf. 1824 MENATORY Gerard. The enigma of the Animal of Gévaudan. éd. of Author, 1988 MENZIES S. Hughes, the wolf-garous. 1838 MICHA Alexandre. Guillaume de Palerne. éd. Droz, 1990 MORGAN William. Human-wolves among the Navajo. éd. Area Press Files, 1970 MOZZANI. E Deliver superstitions Paris, 1996 MUNN H.W. the werewolf of Ponkert. éd. Grandon, 1958 O'Donnell E Werewolves. éd. Wholesale, 1972 OTTEN Charlotte. Werewolves in Western Culture. éd. Syracuse University Press, 1986 PELOT Pierre. The Pact of the Wolves. éd. Shores, 2001 PHILLPOTS E Lycanthrope. 1937 PEAK Xavier. The Animal which ate the world in country of Gévaudan and Auvergne. éd. Albin-Michel, 1971 POE Edgar. The fall of the Usher house. 1839 POURCHER (Abbot). History of the Animal of Gévaudan, True plague of God, according to the new and authentic documents. éd. of Author, 1889 POURRAT faithful H. Histoire of the Animal of Gévaudan. éd. J Laffitte, 1946 POURRAT H. the man with the skin of wolves. 1948 PRIOR. Dictionary of Lycanthropie. 1526 PRIOR Claude. Dialogue of the lycanthropie or Transformation of men into wolves. (FAC simile of the Edition of 1696) éd. Phoenix, 2004 PRZYLUSKI Jean. Brotherhoods of wolves-garous in Indo-European companies. éd. University Presses of France, 1940 ROMERO-GUTIERREZ Astrid. Cuentos de Hombres- Lobos Ninos para. éd. Selector, 1998 SADOUL B. The ball of the wolves-garous. Paris, 1999 SAND George. The meneu of wolves. 1858 SANDEMOSE A. The werewolf. 1958 SAKI Munro. Gabriel Ernest. 1910 SAKI Munro. The She-Wolf. 1914 SEIGNOLLE Claude. Marie the she-wolf. éd. Phébus, 1987 SEIGNOLLE Claude. The Leader of wolves. éd. Epigone, 1989 SEIGNOLLE Claude. Gâlou. éd. Teaching Modern, 1960 SEIGNOLLE Claude. The Anthology of the texts on the wolves. éd. Hesse, 1993 SENN Harry. Werewolf and vampire in Romania. éd. East European Monographs, 1982 SIMAK Clifford. The principle of the werewolf. éd. Denoël, 1989 STEVENSON Robert-Louis. Olalla. 1887 SUMMERS Mr. The Werewolf. éd. University Books, 1966 VARTIER Jean. Lawsuits of animals of Middle Ages at our days. éd. Hatchet, 1970 VAN HAGELAND A. Thirteen Stories of wolf-garous. éd. Gerard, 1978 VILLENEUVE Roland. Wolves-Garous and Vampires. éd. The Palatine One, 1963
Wolves-Garous, Animals of Gevaudan and besides.... Ancient Sources At the 5th front century. J - C, HERODOTE in its Stories mentions already the garous. In Ier front century. J - C. DIODORE of SICILY with its Historical Library, VIRGILE with Moéris, OVIDE with the legend of Lycaon, leave us imperishable texts. But the myth of the werewolf is much older and goes up at the night of times. Old sources The old philosophers, doctors and scientists highly were interested in the wolves-garous. Thus as of Ier century ap. J.-C., SIDE ( Athens) abundantly maintains us their existence, which confirms PETRONE with its History of Niceros. PLINE the OLD one and its Naturalis Historia and PAUSANIAS with its Description of Greece in IIème century ap.J. - C, ORIBASE (Constantinople IVème century), inform us of the presence of lycanthropes. Come then doctor AETIUS (Rome 5th VIème centuries), Paul of EGINE (Alexandria VIIème century), which water us anecdotes on the porphyrie. At the medieval time, Marie of FRANCE writes the Lay one of Bisclavaret in 1180. Strange Roman of Guillaume de Palerne appears a few times later without one knowing exactly on which date. The Celtic tale Arthur and Gorlagon is dated from XIVème century. Finally the Dead of Arthur of MALORY is published in 1470. Of the Middle Ages to the Rebirth, an avalanche of writers, judges, inquisiteurs and scientists doctors put part to maintain us their dear studies at the same time based on serious research and their phantasms. In 1486 Dominican inquisiteurs SPRENGER and KRAMER publish their famous Malleus Maleficarum in Frankfurt. In 1548 in Paris, doctor FERNEL is the author of Abditis Rerum Causis, doctor WIER in Basle bequeaths us his De Preaestigüs Daemonum, in 1563, the large Ambroise AVOIDS continues with Monsters and Wonders, published in Paris in 1573. Judge BODIN, always in Paris in 1580 delivers démonomanie of the wizards to us, the humanistic SCOT publishes in London in 1584, The Discoverie of Witchcraft, in Lyon the judge BUGGY writes his Speech of the wizards in 1590, in 1591 the famous doctor of Leipzig, WOLFESHUSIUS publishes his De Lycanthropis, judge REMY gives his Daemonolatria in 1595 in Lyon. It is now to king d' Angleterre, JACQUES Ier to make known his Daemonologie in Edinburgh in 1597, the Jesuit and former judge LED RIO leaves his Disquisitonum Magicarum to Leuwen in 1599, continuous historian GOULART with his Stories admirable and memorable in 1607, sadly Juge celebrates and Inquisiteur of LANCRE sees publishing in Paris in 1613 its Table of the inconstancy of the bad angels and demons. In 1614, WEBSTER gives its Duchess of Amalfi. Lycanthropie, the work of the doctor of NYNAULD, is published in Paris in 1615. CERVANTES, in Los Trabajos de Persilès y Sigismunda, in 1617, adds its stone to the building of the garous of all the countries. It is with the humanistic BURTON and its The Anatomy of melancholy published in Londre into 1621 that we will conclude this enumeration from works which, recognize, is it far from to be exaustive... Ajoutons in connection with last quoted title, which at the time it was of good tone to believe that the lycanthropie was the result of an insupportable melancholy. Let us retain that if all the works referred to above and low, largely describe cases of lycantropie and of porphyrie, they involve us also sometimes worms of other malefic monstrosities. Thus, not the nécrosadiques ones are not forgotten, the vampires and their ancestors, the lamies, the striges, the empuses, the onoscèles, the oupires, the brucolaques ones, the goules and others succubes and incubate and even the excommunicated suitable ones for transform itself passively or voluntarily into garous and vampires. The Rumanian legends of Transylvania which refer to Vlad Dracul more known under the name of count Dracula, or the nickname of Vlad Empaleur (its favorite distraction was indeed to impale Turkish per thousands), evoke for the majority its terrible and douleureuses alternative transformations into vampire or a werewolf, reason for which we mention here this character as alarming as historical. We should say that there is still a great number of alternatives on the topic of the werewolf. For example, the bears-garous, the panthers-garous, the cats-garous (Raminagrobis say also Grippeminaud was often regarded as an ogre-chat. Actually it of it is nothing and it is indeed an enormous cheating tom cat-garou, patelin and in devil, which devoured the smallest animals that him and especially children not wise.) dogs-garous, foxes-garous, snakes-garous, beuf-garous inter alia... The works concerning these creatures would too largely exceed the framework of our bibliogarous... A little humour with the beufs-garous, you know that the study of their manners names the BOUSANTROPHIE...
The Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) is the most genetically distinct subspecies of gray wolf in North America. Of the five North American subspecies, the Mexican wolf is the smallest in size. A typical Mexican wolf is about 4.5- 5.5 feet long, from snout to tail, weighs from 50 to 90 pounds, and has a coat with a mix of buff, gray, red and black. Like all wolves, the Mexican wolf communicates using body language, scent marking and vocalization. The main prey for Mexican wolves is elk making up 74% of their diet. Other prey include white-tailed deer, mule deer, javelina, jack rabbit, cottontail rabbits and smaller mammals. Commonly called "lobo", the Mexican gray wolf has all but disappeared from its historic range in the southwestern United States and throughout Mexico. Predatory controls from the late 1800s to the mid-1900s made it the rarest gray wolf in North America. By the late 1970s, the Mexican gray wolf had virtually disappeared in the southwestern United States. It was listed as endangered on the federal endangered species list in 1976. Recovery goals of a wild population of at least 100 wolves over 5,000 miles of its historical range were approved by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the Direccion General de la Fauna Silvestre in Mexico in a 1982 recovery plan. In 1997, a plan was approved calling for the reintroduction of Mexican wolves in Arizona and New Mexico. In March 1998, 11 Mexican gray wolves in three family groups were released into the wilds of the Apache National Forest of southeastern Arizona. Two additional wolves were released later that year. The highlight of the recovery program took place in 1998 when, for the first time in 50 years, a Mexican gray wolf pup was born in the wild. Illegal shooting still remains the number one killer of wolves along the Arizona-New Mexico border having claimed 20 wolves since 1998. In 2005, the USFWS plans to release a revised recovery plan and may also revise the rules to allow for broader roaming privileges letting the wolves roam outside of the current recovery area which is considered too limited by some. Environmentalists and some ranchers agree that the human-wolf conflict could be eased if wolves weren't so concentrated. Currently, there are 50 Mexican wolves roaming free in the wild. This number is halfway to the 100-wolf population goal for 2008. There are 260 wolves at 45 captive breeding facilities throughout the country.
The Rocky Mountain wolf (Canis lupus occidentalis) is also sometimes called the Alaskan or Mackenzie Valley wolf. This subspecies inhabits parts of the western United States, much of western Canada, and Alaska, including Unimak Island in the Aleutians, and is the subspecies which was reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and central Idaho. Legal shooting and trapping of wolves occurs throughout Alaska. Over the past decade 11 to 20 percent of Alaska's wolf population has been harvested each year. Studies indicate that wolves could sustain an annual harvest of 30 to 40 percent without decreasing the population. The wolf population in Alaska is estimated at 7,500-11,000 wolves. The population in the northern Rocky Mountains (Greater Yellowstone Area, NW Montana and Idaho) is estimated to be around 800 and increasing. The Rocky Mountain wolf has a coat of black, white, gray, tan, and even blue-ish. Gray or black wolves are the most common. Wolves typically stand about 30 inches at the shoulder and weigh between 85 and 115 pounds, although they can weigh as much as 145 pounds. Pack sizes are generally 6-12 wolves, with some packs as large as 20-30 with one in YNP documented at 37. Territory size in Alaska averages 600 square miles. Wolf packs in YNP average 9.2 wolves with an average territory of 348 square mile, while wolf packs in Idaho average 11.1 and 364 square mile territories. The prey base of the Rocky Mountain wolf is moose, bison, elk, caribou, Dall sheep, Sitka black-tailed deer, mountain goats, beaver, salmon, vole, lemmings, ground squirrels and snowshoe hare.
The Great Plains wolf (Canis lupus nubilus) is the most common subspecies of the gray wolf in the continental United States. It currently inhabits the western Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada. A typical Great Plains wolf is between 4 1/2 and 6 1/2 feet long, from snout to tail, weighs from 60 to 110 pounds, and may have a coat of gray, black or buff with red-ish coloring. Like all wolves, the Great Plains wolf is a very social animal that communicates using body language, scent marking and vocalization with an average pack size of five to six wolves. The territory size for the Great Plains wolf depends on the type and density of prey. Typical prey for the Great Plains wolf consists of white-tailed deer, moose, beaver, snowshoe hare, and smaller birds and mammals. The historic range of the Great Plains wolf was throughout the United States and the southern regions of Canada. By the 1930s, Great Plains wolves were extirpated almost eliminated completely, in much of the western United States. In Wisconsin and Michigan, the Great Plains wolf was eradicated by the mid- 1960s. Only a small group of wolves survived in northeastern Minnesota along the Ontario border. In 1974, the Great Plains wolf in the Great Lakes region became fully protected as an endangered species. By 1978, Minnesota's wolf population had increased enough that the wolf was reclassified as threatened in Minnesota. The Great Plains wolf is found in the Eastern distinct population segment (DPS) categorized under the Endangered Species Act which is now awaiting new legislation to completely remove it from the endangered species list. The estimated population for Great Plains wolves for 2004 in the United States was over 3,700 wolves. The population was distributed as follows: Michigan 360 Isle Royale 30 Wisconsin 425 Minnesota 3,020 North and South Dakota officials have noted lone wolves, but evidence indicates that the wolves were dispersers from populations outside the Dakotas, and that a breeding population probably does not exist there.
The eastern timber wolf (Canis lupus lycaon) was the first subspecies of the gray wolf, Canis lupus, to be recognized in the United States. Canis lupus lycaon inhabited the eastern portions of the United States and southeastern parts of Canada. Like all wolves, the eastern timber wolf is a very social animal which communicates using body language, scent marking, and vocalization. The eastern timber wolf was virtually exterminated by the early 1900s throughout its historic range in the northeastern United States. Although there are unconfirmed sightings of wolves in Vermont and Maine, and a confirmed shooting of a wolf in Maine in 1993, there is no evidence of breeding activity in the region. The northeastern United States provides suitable wolf habitat with over 26 million acres of northern forest from Adirondack State Park in Upstate New York through the North Woods of Maine. In fact, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's 1992 Eastern Timberwolf Recovery Plan identified Adirondack State Park and 2 areas of New England as possible recovery areas for this subspecies. Despite the availability of habitat and prey, natural recolonization is unlikely due to many landscape barriers, including the St. Lawrence Seaway and extensive urban areas. A study recently completed by the Conservation Biology Institute (CBI) in Corvallis, Oregon determined that Adirondack Park could hold a small population of wolves, but they recommended that a wolf reintroduction program for the Adirondacks not be pursued at this time. The reason for this recommendation is that they were concerned about the long-term viability of a wolf population in this area and the possibility that eastern timber wolves might hybridize with coyotes. The complete results of the study can be found at www.consbio.org.
The arctic wolf (Canis lupus arctos), a subspecies of the gray wolf (Canis lupus), is very similar to other wolves. It lives and hunts in packs, has a social hierarchy, and holds territories. It differs from other wolves in its habitat, appearance, and prey species. Arctic wolves live primarily in the Arctic, the region located above 67° north latitude. The land is covered with snow and ice for most of the year, except for a brief period during the summer. Arctic wolves have adapted well to this icy environment. They have white fur, which allows them to blend into their snowy surroundings. To help reduce heat loss, they have more-rounded ears, a shorter muzzle and shorter legs than other gray wolf subspecies. They also have hair between the pads of their feet and long, thick fur to keep them warm in temperatures that can drop to minus 70° Fahrenheit. A low density of prey in the Arctic requires these wolves to have territories of well over 1,000 square miles, much larger than their southern relatives. The main prey of the arctic wolf are musk oxen, and arctic hare, but they will also eat Peary caribou, ptarmigan, lemmings, seals, and nesting birds. Permafrost in the Arctic makes it difficult for the wolves to dig dens. Instead, their dens are often found in rock outcroppings, caves or shallow depressions in the tundra soil. The mother will give birth to 2-3 pups in late May to early June, about a month later than the southern subspecies. On average, the number of pups raised in the Arctic is lower than the average 5-6 pups born to wolves further south. This lower number may be due to scarcity of prey in the Arctic.
Alpha - The top rank in the social order of the wolf pack. Since a separate social hierarchy exists for males and females, a pack has both an alpha male and an alpha female. They are usually the parents of most of the other members of the pack. Beta - The second rank in the social order of a wolf pack. Since separate social hierarchies operate for males and females, a pack may have both a beta male and a beta female. A wolf at this rank will usually dominate all of the other wolves in its gender except the alpha wolf.
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