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Maj's blog: "CANADA"

created on 10/04/2006  |  http://fubar.com/canada/b10305
MANITOBA - Man. -Manitoba is one of the three prairie provinces in Canada. -It is located in the center of Canada. -Ontario is to the east and Saskatchewan to the west. -Nunavut is north and the United States is south. -"Manitoba" is a Cree name meaning "the place where the spirit (manitou) speaks." -capital city - Winnipeg. -second-largest city - Brandon. -flower-Prairie Crocus , tree-White Spruce, bird-Great Gray Owl -motto-"Glorious and Free" THE PEOPLE -Manitoba is the home of over a million people.(1,177.600 in 2005) -Winnipeg is the largest city. About 706,900 people live there. -Manitoba is home to many Metis and native peoples. -People came to Manitoba from Britain, Europe, Europe, East and Southeast Asia. -Some large ethic groups : Ukranian, Mennonite and Icelandic. HISTORY -The first people to live in Manitoba: Assiniboine, Cree, Saulteaux, Chepewyan, Ojibwa. -They followed herds of bison and caribou. -Early explorers arrived through Hudson Bay in northern Manitoba. -Hudson's Bay Company (created in 1670) set up fur-trading posts along the rivers. -The first French settlement was Fort Rouge. -The first British settlement was Red River. -Louis Riel (1844-1885) was an influential Metis leader. -Riel and his people were concerned about the settlers taking over their land. -He is often called the Father of Manitoba. -Manitoba became Canada's fifth province in 1870. -The railway brought thousands of settlers from eastern Canada and from all over the world. LAND and WATER -Manitoba is known as the land of 100,000 lakes. -Lake Winnipeg, Lake Winnipegosis and Lake Manitoba are three large lakes. -The three largest rivers are the Churchill River, Nelson River, and Hayes River. -The three rivers flow into Hudson Bay in northern Manitoba. -Forests (pine, hemlock and birch) cover northern Manitoba. RESOURCES/INDUSTRIES -Manitoba lies in the area of Canada known as the Canadian Shield. -Minerals and metals are found in the Canadian Shield.(nickel, gold, copper, zinc, cobalt, gypsum) -Manitoba has petroleum (used to make gasoline). -One-fourth of land is covered with forest. -Hydro-electric power is an important industry. -Manitoba sells hydro-electric power to other provinces and to the US. -There are different types of farming in southern Manitoba: One-third of the farmland is used for growing wheat. Mills make wheat into flour. The wheat is sold to other countries. Farmers also grow barley, oats, sunflowers, flax and canola. These crops are made into cereal and oil products. Dairy farms produce milk, cheese, yogurt and cream. There are also livestock farms. -Industries include manufacturing (farm equipment, buses, fashion, furniture), food processing, aerospace and transportation. PLACES and PEOPLE -The Royal Canadian Mint ( where coins are made ) is in Winnipeg. -The Viking at Gimli - a giant statue honoring the ancestors of the Icelandic people. -Churchill in northern Manitoba is "the polar bear capital of the world". Polar bears make their dens near the town.
BRITISH COLUMBIA - B.C. -B.C. is the most western province in Canada and the third-largest. -Alberta is to the east, and the Yukon and NWT are north . -The Pacific Ocean is to the west. -There are many islands off the coast that are also part of B.C. -Victoria, the capital city is on Vancouver Island. -Vancouver is the third largest city in Canada. -B.C.'s flower - Pacific Dogwood, bird - Stellar's Jay, tree - Western Red Cedar. -motto - "Splendour without diminishment" THE PEOPLE -B.C. is the home to over 4.2 million people. (2005 population) -The largest city is Vancouver. (population 2.1 million in 2005) -The Northwest Coast Native peoples live in B.C. -People came from Britain, Western Europe, East and Southeast Asia, Bangladesh, and Pakistan. -B.C. has the largest Chinese community in Canada. -The top 10 languages spoken are English, Chinese (including Cantonese and Mandarin), Punjabi, German, French, Tagalog, Spanish, Italian, Korean, and Dutch. -Approximately 35,000 immigrants from around the world arrive each year. HISTORY -The first people to live in BC : Tlingit, Sekani, Haida, Nootka, Chilcotin and Shuswap. -They fished for salmon and seals and hunted deer and elk. -They built large wooden houses and carved totem poles. -(1778) Captain James Cook a British explorer sailed to B.C. -George Vancouver mapped the coastline. -Fur trading posts were built. -(1857-1858) Fraser Valley Gold Rush brought many people. -B.C. became a province in 1871. -Canadian government promised to build a railway to B.C. -Thousands of Chinese labourers arrived to help build the railway. -Many stayed when the railway was finished. -British settlers came by train to the west coast. LAND AND WATER -The Fraser River is one of the largest rivers in Canada. -Both the Fraser and the Columbia River flow into the Pacific Ocean. -Ferry boats take people to and from the Islands off the coast. -There are six national parks in B.C. -Coastal Mountains and Rocky Mountains are two large mountain ranges. RESOURCES/INDUSTRIES -Forestry is the largest industry. Forest covers half of B.C. -B.C, has the largest and oldest trees in Canada. -B.C.'s mountains, parks and beaches attract many tourists. -Mining is the third-largest industy. (copper, coal, gold, silver, zinc, sulphur, asbestos) -B.C. has the largest fishing industry in Canada. (salmon, halibut, clams, cod, crab, oysters, rockfish, shrimp and herring) -Fraser Valley has cattle and dairy farms and farms that grow fruit and flowers. -There are many orchards in the Okanagan Valley. ( apples, cherries, peaches, apricots, and plums) -The province is Canada's third-largest generator of hydro electricity. -B.C. is Canada's second-largest natural gas producer. -B.C. is the third-largest film and television production centre in North America (after New York and Los Angeles). -Stanley Park in Vancouver is one of Canada's biggest city parks with an aquarium, gardens, beaches, trails and totem poles carved out of wood by the native people of the west coast. -Tourists come to ski at Whistler Mountain and other ski resorts in B.C. -Okanagan Valley is known for the warm weather, wineries and as a fruit-growing region.


A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across an unfortified border. Canada's paramount political problem is meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care and education services after a decade of budget cuts. Canada also faces questions about integrity in government following revelations regarding a corruption scandal in the federal government that has helped revive the fortunes of separatists in predominantly francophone Quebec. CANADA'S AREA MASS total: 9,984,670 sq km land: 9,093,507 sq km water: 891,163 sq km land boundries total: 8,893 km border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska) (haha adam ) Terrain mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast elevations lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m natural resources iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower Our land usage arable land: 4.57% permanent crops: 0.65% other: 94.78% (2005) Natural hazzards continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains enviroment (current) issues air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Marine Life Conservation note** second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km of the US border recent est.. pop 33,098,932 July 2006 age structure 0-14 years: 17.6% (male 2,992,811/female 2,848,388) 15-64 years: 69% (male 11,482,452/female 11,368,286) 65 years and over: 13.3% (male 1,883,008/female 2,523,987) (2006 est.) median age total: 38.9 years male: 37.8 years female: 39.9 years (2006 est.) our population growth 0.88% (2006 est.) birth rate 10.78 births/1,000 population (2006 est.) death rate 7.8 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.) migrant rate 5.85 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.) **MORE TO COME****
CANADA LOCATION -Canada is on the continent of North America. -The country stretches from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. -The Arctic Ocean is north and the United States is south. -Canada is north of the 49th parallel of latitude. -The 49th parallel was chosen as a border from the Great Lakes to the west coast. FACTS -second-largest country in the world (Russian Federation is the largest) -ten provinces and three territories (capital cities are in brackets). Alberta (Edmonton), British Columbia (Victoria), Manitoba (Winnipeg), New Brunswick (Fredericton), Newfoundland and Labrador(St. John's), Northwest Territories (Yellowknife), Nova Scotia (Halifax), Nunavut (Iqaluit), Ontario (Toronto), Prince Edward Island (Charlottetown), Quebec (Quebec City), Saskatchewan (Regina), Yukon Territory (Whitehorse) -population over 32 million (2005) -capital city of Canada - Ottawa (Ontario) -leader of Canada - Prime Minister Stephen Harper -Governor General of Canada - Michaƫlle Jean -emblem - maple leaf -flag - red and white with a red maple leaf -Canada's birthday is on the first of July. -animal - the beaver -motto - "From sea to sea" -national anthem - "O Canada" -RCMP (Royal Canadian Mounted Police) - the national police force -there are six time zones THE PEOPLE -population 32,270,500 (2005) -Most of the people live in the southern part of Canada. -About 77 percent of Canadians live in cities and towns. -The largest cities are Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver.(2005 population) Toronto - 5.3 million; Montreal - 3.6 million; Vancouver - 2.1 million -The two main languages are English and French. -French is spoken by about 6 million people. -Ethnic groups include British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%, North American Indian 2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%, mixed background 26% -Canada is the home of over a million Aboriginal people. -Three Aboriginal groups : North American Indian, Metis and Inuit -Eastern Canada : the Maliseet, Algonquin, Iroquois, Micmac, Huron and Ojibwa -The Plains : Blackfoot, Cree and Assiniboine -Pacific Coast : Kwakiutl, Bella Coola, and Haida -Northern regions : Dene, Tsimshian and Slavey peoples -Arctic region : the Inuit LAND AND WATER -Canada has the world's longest coastline. -There are oceans on three sides - Pacific ( west), Atlantic ( east), Arctic (north). -Nearly one-fourth of all the fresh water in the world is in Canada. -Glaciers shaped the land and created many lakes (about 2 million lakes). -The Mackenzie River ( in the N.W.T. ) is the longest river in Canada. -Ships sail inland on the St. Lawrence River (from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes). -Forests cover almost half of Canada. -Canada has one-tenth of the world's forests. -Mount Logan in the Yukon Territory is Canada's tallest peak at 5,959 metres. GEOGRAPHY -Canada has six main geographical regions: Appalachian Highland, Canadian Shield, Arctic, Lowlands, Interior Plains, Cordillera HISTORY -The first people were the Aboriginal people. -Explorers and settlers from Western Europe arrived in the 1500s. -Canada was named by the French explorer Jacques Cartier (1535). -The name "Canada" comes from the Huron and Iroquois word "Kanata" meaning "village". -Canada became a country on July 1st, 1867. -The first provinces were Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario and Quebec. -The first prime minister was Sir John A. Macdonald. RESOURCES -Forests, plants, animals and fish are some of Canada's renewable resources. -Renewable resources can be replaced by nature. -Minerals, metal, natural gas, and oil are some of Canada's nonrenewable resources. -They cannot be replaced by nature. -Hydro-electric power is sold to the United States. -There are many different types of farms in Canada: grain farms, vegetable farms, fruit orchards, livestock and dairy farms -There are 42 national parks in Canada. Parks were created to protect the forests, plants and wildlife. Canada has laws to protect the wild animals and plants that are endangered. Hunting, mining and logging are not allowed in parks. -The largest park in Canada is Wood Buffalo National Park, in Alberta and the Northwest Territories. It is home of the world's largest bison herd and the only nesting site of the endangered whooping crane. -The oldest National Park is Banff in Alberta. It was created in 1885 as Rocky Mountain Park. EXPORTS - motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum TRANSPORTATION -The main highway system (completed in 1962) is called the Trans-Canada Highway. -It goes from St. John's NFLD to Victoria, B.C. -The highway is 7 604 kilometres long. -It is the longest national highway in the world. -The Dempster Highway in the Yukon territory is the northernmost highway. -The major ports are Vancouver, Churchill, Montreal, Quebec City, Halifax and St. John's. -The St. Lawrence Seaway allows ocean-going ships to sail inland. -The Seaway has twenty-six locks and five canals. -The two main freight railway systems are the Canadian National and the Canadian Pacific Railway. -VIA railway provides passenger service. -Workers began to build the national railroad in 1872. -The Canadian Pacific Railway was finished in 1885. -Upon completion many settlers were able to travel west. -In 1937 Bombardier invented the first snowmobile. GOVERNMENT -democratic system of government -Parliament of Canada is in Ottawa, Ontario -Parliament consists of House of Commons (elected) and Senate (appointed) -Prime Minister - Stephen Harper (leader of the Conservative Party) SPORTS -Hockey is the national sport of Canada. -Canadians also swim, ski, golf, curl, ride horses, play baseball, football, soccer, tennis, and lacrosse. -The native people of Canada invented the game of lacrosse.
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